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Brewing in the 21st century is a large-scale industry.
Modern breweries use stainless-steel equipment and computer-controlled automated operations, and they package beer in metal casks, glass bottles, aluminum cans, and plastic containers.
show that barley or partly germinated barley was crushed, mixed with water, and dried into cakes.
When broken up and mixed with water, the cakes gave an extract that was fermented by microorganisms accumulated on the surfaces of fermenting vessels.) reported that Saxons, Celts, and Nordic and Germanic tribes drank ale.
In fact, many of the English terms used in brewing (malt, mash, wort, ale) are Anglo-Saxon in origin.
During the Middle Ages the monastic orders preserved brewing as a craft.
Meanwhile, German-style lagers bottom-fermented by pure yeast cultures became dominant in the Americas.
Brewers in Burton upon Trent, using the famous hard waters of that region and pale malts roasted in coke-fired kilns, created pale Pale ale is less strong, less bitter, paler in colour, and clearer than porter.
Mild ales—weaker, darker, and sweeter than bitter—are a common variation; more colour is obtained by special malts, roasted barley, or caramels, less hops are used, and cane sugar is added to impart sweetness and aid maturation.
Brewing was a winter occupation, and ice was used to keep beer cool during the summer months.
Such beer came to be called is now used for top-fermented British types of beer.